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Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004 Aug;287(2):R298-305.

Role for CD14, TLR2, and TLR4 in bacterial product-induced anorexia.

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Institute of Animal Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Schorenstrasse 16, 8603 Schwerzenbach, Switzerland.


The cell surface component CD14 and the toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) are important in mediating the immune responses to bacterial products in mammals. Using mice genetically deficient in CD14, TLR2, or TLR4, we studied the role of these molecules in the anorectic effects of LPS and muramyl dipeptide (MDP). CD14 or TLR2 knockout (KO) and TLR4-deficient (TLR4-DEF) mice as well as corresponding wild-type (WT) colittermates were injected intraperitoneally at dark onset with LPS (2 microg/mouse), MDP (10 mg/kg), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta, 150 ng/mouse), or vehicle, and food intake was recorded. LPS and MDP reduced food intake in WT mice of all genotypes tested. The anorectic effect of LPS was attenuated (P < 0.04) in CD14-KO and TLR4-DEF mice but not in TLR2-KO (P > 0.05). The anorectic effect of MDP was blunted in CD14-KO and TLR2-KO (P < 0.02) mice but not in TLR4-DEF mice. IL-1 beta reduced food intake similarly in all genotypes tested. These results indicate that CD14 is involved in mediating the anorectic effects of both LPS and MDP. Furthermore, TLR4 and TLR2 are specifically involved in mediating the anorectic effects of LPS and MDP, respectively. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that TLR4 functions as the true LPS receptor and that TLR2 is involved in recognition of gram-positive bacterial products.

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