Send to

Choose Destination
Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004 Aug;3(4):453-62.

Antigen delivery systems.

Author information

Netherlands Vaccine Institute, Unit Research and Development, P.O. Box 457, 3720 BA BILHOVEN, The Netherlands.


Many vaccine candidates are highly purified, sometimes monomeric antigens and as a result, not very immunogenic. Antigen delivery systems optimize the presentation of antigens. They also play a major role in solving the problem of there being an increasing number of vaccines but limited opportunities in which to include these vaccines in immunization programs. The number of injections is restricted and combining vaccines may lead to immunological and physicochemical incompatibility. In this review, the current status with respect to parenteral and mucosal delivery systems is discussed. These include lipid-based systems such as liposomes and immunostimulating complexes, as well as polymeric microspheres. In addition, developments in needle-free, dermal delivery devices such as jet injectors, microneedles and patches are presented.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center