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Ann Plast Surg. 2004 Aug;53(2):97-101.

Gynecomastia: an outcome analysis.

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Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, SUMMA Health System/Northeast Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Akron, Ohio, USA.



Gynecomastia refers to the presence of femalelike mammary glands in a male. This disorder can lead to significant psychologic stress and self-consciousness. This study consists of a chart review of 174 patients treated surgically between July 1, 1976, and February 27, 2001.


Operative procedures were excision, excision with suction-assisted lipectomy (SAL), SAL, skin excision (skin) and skin excision with SAL. Overall complication rate was 20%. No significant difference in complication rates was found between grades or procedures. Revision rates between grades were I = 10.3%, II = 14.5% and III = 34.8% (P < 0.001). In grade III, gynecomastia revision rates for excision +/- SAL was 29% and skin +/- SAL was 38.1% (P = 0.644). Of the 8 revisions in the skin-sparing procedures, 6 were revised with a scar-forming procedure. Therefore, 77% of patients with grade III gynecomastia were adequately treated with a skin-sparing procedure.


Skin-sparing operations should be the initial procedure chosen for most grade III gynecomastia patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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