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Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2004 Jul;4(7):1129-38.

Taking a Toll on human disease: Toll-like receptor 4 agonists as vaccine adjuvants and monotherapeutic agents.

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Corixa Corporation, 553 Old Corvallis Road, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA.


Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are being developed for use as vaccine adjuvants and as stand-alone immunomodulators because of their ability to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Among the most thoroughly studied TLR agonists are the lipid A molecules that target the TLR4 complex. One promising candidate, monophosphoryl lipid A, which is a derivative of lipid A from Salmonella minnesota, has proven to be safe and effective as a vaccine adjuvant in > 120,000 human doses. A new class of synthetic lipid A mimetics, the aminoalkyl glucosaminide 4-phosphates (AGPs), have been engineered specifically to target human TLR4 and are showing promise as vaccine adjuvants and as monotherapeutic agents capable of eliciting nonspecific protection against a wide range of infectious pathogens. In this review, the authors provide an update of the preclinical and clinical experiences with the TLR4 agonists, MPL (Corixa Corporation) adjuvant and the AGPs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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