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J Immunol Methods. 2004 Jul;290(1-2):121-33.

Protein microarray detection strategies: focus on direct detection technologies.

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FDA-NCI Clinical Proteomics Program, Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Room B1B53, Bldg. 10, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


Protein microarrays are being utilized for functional proteomic analysis, providing information not obtainable by gene arrays. Microarray technology is applicable for studying protein-protein, protein-ligand, kinase activity and posttranslational modifications of proteins. A precise and sensitive protein microarray, the direct detection or reverse-phase microarray, has been applied to ongoing clinical trials at the National Cancer Institute for studying phosphorylation events in EGF-receptor-mediated cell signaling pathways. The variety of microarray applications allows for multiple, creative microarray designs and detection strategies. Herein, we discuss detection strategies and challenges for protein microarray technology, focusing on direct detection of protein microarrays.

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