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J Cell Mol Med. 2004 Apr-Jun;8(2):201-12.

S-glutathionylation: from redox regulation of protein functions to human diseases.

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Department of Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play an integral role in the modulation of several physiological functions but can also be potentially destructive if produced in excessive amounts. Protein cysteinyl thiols appear especially sensitive to ROS/RNS attack. Experimental evidence started to accumulate recently, documenting that S-glutathionylation occurs in a number of physiologically relevant situations, where it can produce discrete modulatory effects on protein function. The increasing evidence of functional changes resulting from this modification, and the growing number of proteins shown to be S-glutathionylated both in vitro and in vivo support this contention, and confirm this as an attractive area of research. S-glutathionylated proteins are now actively investigated with reference to problems of biological interest and as possible biomarkers of human diseases associated with oxidative/nitrosative stress.

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