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Biol Chem. 2004 Jun;385(6):465-72.

Interaction of calpastatin with calpain: a review.

Author information

1
Muscle Biology Group, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

Abstract

Calpastatin is a multiheaded inhibitor capable of inhibiting more than one calpain molecule. Each inhibitory domain of calpastatin has three subdomains, A, B, and C; A binds to domain IV and C binds to domain VI of the calpains. Crystallographic evidence shows that binding of C to domain VI involves hydrophobic interactions at a site near the first EF-hand in domain VI. Sequence homology suggests that binding of A to calpain domain IV also involves hydrophobic interactions near the EF1-hand of domain IV. Neither subdomain A nor C have inhibitory activity without subdomain B, but both increase the inhibitory activity of B. Subdomain B peptides have no inhibitory activity unless they contain at least 13 amino acids, and inhibitory activity increases with the number of amino acid residues, suggesting that inhibition requires interaction over a large area of the calpain molecule. Although subdomain B inhibition kinetically is competitive in nature, subdomain B does not seem to interact with the active site of the calpains directly, but may bind to domain III of the calpains and act to block access to the active site. It is possible that subdomain B binds to calpain only after it has been activated by Ca2+.

PMID:
15255177
DOI:
10.1515/BC.2004.054
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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