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Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2004 Jul;25(5):227-36.

DM27, an enaminone, modifies the in vitro transport of antiviral therapeutic agents.

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Pharmacokinetics-Biopharmaceutics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, 20 Penn Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.



For most antiviral drugs, low or variable bioavailability is attributed to poor absorption, susceptibility to efflux, or first pass metabolism. Enaminones are beta dicarbonyl compounds, which display P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate properties with high efflux ratios. This study investigates the influence of DM27, an enaminone, on the in vitro transport of antiviral agents and the possibility of using DM27 as a P-gp inhibitor to prevent the efflux of certain antiretroviral agents.


The transport of [3H]amprenavir, [3H]saquinavir, [3H]ritonavir, [14C]zidovudine (AZT) and [3H]acyclovir was evaluated across Caco-2 cells with DM27 (10(-10)-10(-4) M). In addition, the effect of DM27 (10(-6) M) on the transport of transcellular and paracellular markers was tested to evaluate its influence on these transport pathways. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for each drug or marker was calculated with/without DM27 and toxicity evaluation for DM27 was performed using the MTS assay.


The mean Papp for the investigated antiviral agents significantly increased by 22%-51% after DM27 incubation without any toxicity to the Caco-2 cells. In addition, DM27 did not influence the transcellular or paracellular transport of propranolol and mannitol, respectively.


DM27, an enaminone, increased the transport of antiretroviral drugs and acyclovir in a nontoxic manner without affecting the paracellular or transcellular transport of these drugs. This study suggests that DM27 may be used as a P-gp efflux inhibitor to enhance the oral bioavailability of antiviral drugs and that drug-drug interactions will most probably be encountered upon co-administration of P-gp substrate drugs with enaminones.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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