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Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004 Aug;11(8):777-83. Epub 2004 Jul 11.

Structural basis for Ca(2+)-induced activation of human PAD4.

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Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan.


Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of protein arginine residues to citrulline. Its gene is a susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis. Here we present the crystal structure of Ca(2+)-free wild-type PAD4, which shows that the polypeptide chain adopts an elongated fold in which the N-terminal domain forms two immunoglobulin-like subdomains, and the C-terminal domain forms an alpha/beta propeller structure. Five Ca(2+)-binding sites, none of which adopt an EF-hand motif, were identified in the structure of a Ca(2+)-bound inactive mutant with and without bound substrate. These structural data indicate that Ca(2+) binding induces conformational changes that generate the active site cleft. Our findings identify a novel mechanism for enzyme activation by Ca(2+) ions, and are important for understanding the mechanism of protein citrullination and for developing PAD-inhibiting drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

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