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Brief Funct Genomic Proteomic. 2002 Oct;1(3):239-56.

Morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligonucleotides in zebrafish: a recipe for functional genomics?

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Discovery Genomics, Inc., USA.


Morpholino phosphorodiamidate anti-sense oligonucleotides (MPOs) have recently emerged as a tool for gene-specific knockdown. MPOs have a great potential for both therapeutic applications and functional genomics. In particular, zebrafish are well suited for gene function studies using MPOs owing to their rapid external development, transparent embryos and the ease of delivery of the intervening MPOs. This paper describes principles of MPO action and the application of MPOs for gene function studies and therapeutics. In the field of functional genomics, the MPO strategy has been most successfully used to study gene function in zebrafish. Over 35 mutations have been successfully phenocopied and over 30 novel gene functions have been analysed in zebrafish using MPOs during the last two years. The essential controls that are required to avoid misinterpretation of experimental data when using MPOs for gene function analysis will also be described.

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