Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Jul;71(1):48-52.

Risk factors for human anthrax among contacts of anthrax-infected livestock in Kazakhstan.

Author information

Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, 508 Fulton Street, Durham, NC 27705, USA.


A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted in Kazakhstan to define modifiable risk factors during seven outbreaks of human anthrax. Fifty-three cases and 255 non-ill persons with an epidemiologic link to an infected animal were enrolled. Cases were 58% male and had a median age of 35 years (range = 5-71). Nearly all cases had cutaneous disease (96%). Two patients (4%) were diagnosed with gastrointestinal disease. Although all cases had some contact with an infected animal other than consumption, in multivariable analysis the act of butchering an animal (relative risk [RR] = 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-9.6) and the presence of visible cuts on the hands were associated with anthrax (RR = 3.0, 95% CI = 0.9-9.6). Contact with infected livestock, in particular butchering, is associated with developing anthrax. The risk may be exacerbated by the presence of cuts on the hands at the time of contact with the animal or animal products.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Ingenta plc
    Loading ...
    Support Center