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Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004 Aug 1;428(1):32-40.

Electron transfer in quinoproteins.

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Department of Biochemistry, The University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 N. State St., Jackson, MS 39216-4505, USA.


Soluble quinoprotein dehydrogenases oxidize a wide range of sugar, alcohol, amine, and aldehyde substrates. The physiological electron acceptors for these enzymes are not pyridine nucleotides but are other soluble redox proteins. This makes these enzymes and their electron acceptors excellent systems with which to study mechanisms of long-range interprotein electron transfer reactions. The tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ)-dependent methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) transfers electrons to a blue copper protein, amicyanin. It has been possible to alter the rate of electron transfer by using different redox forms of MADH, varying reaction conditions, and performing site-directed mutagenesis on these proteins. From kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the reaction rates, it was possible to determine whether a change in rate is due a change in Delta G(0), electronic coupling, reorganization energy or kinetic mechanism. Examples of each of these cases are discussed in the context of the known crystal structures of the electron transfer protein complexes. The pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent methanol dehydrogenase transfers electrons to a c-type cytochrome. Kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of this reaction indicated that this electron transfer reaction was conformationally coupled. Quinohemoproteins possess a quinone cofactor as well as one or more c-type hemes within the same protein. The structures of a PQQ-dependent quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase and a TTQ-dependent quinohemoprotein amine dehydrogenase are described with respect to their roles in intramolecular and intermolecular protein electron transfer reactions.

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