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Semin Diagn Pathol. 1992 Aug;9(3):238-48.

Pathology of heart transplant through endomyocardial biopsy.

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Department of Pathology, Clínica Universitaria, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.


Cardiac transplantation is most effective method for treatment of patients with end-stage heart disease. We present the experience of our institution with 1,564 biopsies and 11 autopsies of 105 orthotopic heart transplants. This report describes the morphological features and the grading systems of acute rejection. Also, we present the morphological characteristics of other complications of heart transplants such as chronic rejection, "Quilty" effect, interstitial fibrosis, heart hypertrophy, previous biopsy sites, calcification, cytomegalovirus infections, toxoplasmosis, and the appearance of malignancies, mainly, lymphomas. Actuarial survival of patients is 91% and 88% at 1 and 5 years' posttransplant, respectively.

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