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Surv Ophthalmol. 2004 Jul-Aug;49(4):437-45.

Optics of wide-angle panoramic viewing system-assisted vitreous surgery.

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Department of Ophthalmology, 580 W. 8th Street, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL 32209, USA.


The purpose of the article is to describe the optics of the contact wide-angle lens system with stereo-reinverter for vitreous surgery. A panoramic viewing system is made up of two components; an indirect ophthalmoscopy lens system for fundus image viewing, which is placed on the patient's cornea as a contact lens, and a separate removable prism system for reinversion of the image mounted on the microscope above the zooming system. The system provides a 104 degrees field of view in a phakic emmetropic eye with minification, which can be magnified by the operating microscope. It permits a binocular stereoptic view even through a small pupil (3 mm) or larger. In an air-filled phakic eye, field of view increases to approximately 130 degrees. The obtained image of the patient's fundus is reinverted to form true, erect, stereoscopic image by the reinversion system. In conclusion, this system permits wide-angle panoramic view of the surgical field. The contact lens neutralizes the optical irregularities of the corneal surface and allows improved visualization in eyes with irregular astigmatism induced by corneal scars. Excellent visualization is achieved in complex clinical situations such as miotic pupils, lenticular opacities, and in air-filled phakic eyes.

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