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Medicine (Baltimore). 1992 Sep;71(5):261-70.

Amyloidosis and inflammatory bowel disease. A 50-year experience with 25 patients.

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1
Department of Surgery, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, City University of New York, NY 10029.

Abstract

Amyloidosis is a rare but serious complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially Crohn's disease (CD). It occurred in 15 of our 1709 patients with CD (0.9%) (706 with ileocolitis, 310 with colitis, and 693 with enteritis), but in only 1 of our 1341 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (0.07%), admitted to The Mount Sinai Hospital between 1960 and 1985. Eleven of the patients with CD who had amyloidosis had ileocolitis, 2 colitis, and 2 ileitis; these figures represent a frequency within each group of 1.6%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively. Amyloidosis was thus associated 4.4 times more often with CD of the colon than with pure small bowel disease. We have added to this group of 15 patients the 5 cases of CD that were originally reported by Werther et al in 1960, plus another 4 (2 with UC and 2 with CD) who have been seen since 1985, making a total of 25 patients in this series, 22 with CD and 3 with UC. There was a striking male preponderance, 16 of 22, among patients with CD, although 2 of the 3 patients with UC were female. Amyloid disease was diagnosed at a mean age of 40 years, 15 years (range, 1-42) after the onset of CD. Six major forms of amyloidosis occurred: nephropathy, enteropathy, cardiomyopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, thyroid mass, and generalized amyloidosis. Renal disease with proteinurea and/or renal insufficiency occurred in 18 of the 22 patients with CD and in all 3 with UC. Nephropathy was by far the most common lethal manifestation of IBD-associated amyloidosis in this series. Nephrotic syndrome developed in 15 patients with CD and was accompanied by renal failure, the major contributor to mortality, in 10 of the 13 patients who died. Amyloidosis may be associated with suppurative or other extraintestinal manifestations of IBD. Fifteen of the 22 patients with CD who had amyloidosis also had suppurative complications of their bowel disease, although the other 7 had no recognizable suppuration. Extraintestinal manifestations were also common in this series, occurring in 12 of 22 patients with CD and in 2 of the 3 patients with UC; 6 of the 18 patients with nephrotic syndrome also had arthritis. However, there is no evidence that patients with IBD with amyloidosis have extraintestinal manifestations more frequently than do IBD patients without amyloidosis. Earlier reports of amyloid associated with IBD came from autopsy series. In recent years, biopsy has allowed diagnosis to be made during life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

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