Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Circ J. 2004 Jul;68(7):691-702.

Efficient cardiomyogenic differentiation of embryonic stem cell by fibroblast growth factor 2 and bone morphogenetic protein 2.

Author information

Cardiology, Respiratory and Nephrology, Regeneration and Advanced Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.



Despite the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells, the specific control of their cardiomyogenic differentiation remains difficult. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether growth factors may efficiently enhance the in vitro cardiac differentiation of ES cells.


Recombinant growth factors at various concentrations or their inhibitors were added according to various schedules during the cardiomyogenic differentiation of ES cells. Cardiomyogenic differentiation was assessed by mRNA and protein expressions of several cardiomyocyte-specific genes. Basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and/or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) efficiently enhanced the cardiomyogenic differentiation, but only when they were added at the optimal concentration (1.0 ng/ml in FGF-2 and 0.2 ng/ml in BMP-2; relatively lower than expected in both cases) for the first 3 days. Inhibition of FGF-2 and/or BMP-2 drastically suppressed the cardiomyogenic differentiation.


FGF-2 and BMP-2 play a crucial role in early cardiomyogenesis. The achievement of efficient cardiac differentiation using both growth factors may facilitate ES cell-derived cell therapy for heart diseases as well as contribute to developmental studies of the heart.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for J-STAGE, Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator, Electronic
    Loading ...
    Support Center