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J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 May;89-90(1-5):533-7.

Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the risk of prostate cancer.

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Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Tuscon 85724-5024, USA.


In the US, prostate cancer (PCa) has the highest incidence rate of all cancers in males, with few known modifiable risk factors. Some studies support an association between the Vitamin D metabolites, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and/or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D(3)), and prostate cancer, while others have yielded conflicting results. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) has anti-proliferative and pro-differentiating effects in prostate cancer cell lines, and levels of circulating 25(OH)D(3) may be important as PCa cells possess 1-alpha-hydroxylase activity. Using a nested case-control design, we evaluated whether plasma levels of 25(OH)D(3) and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) were associated with prostate cancer risk in participants from the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer (NPC) trial. With 83 cases and 166 matched controls, we calculated the adjusted odds ratios for increasing plasma levels of 25(OH)D(3) and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Compared to the lowest tertile of plasma 25(OH)D(3) levels, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.71 (0.68-4.34) and 0.75 (0.29-1.91); the corresponding odds ratios for 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) were 1.44 (0.59-3.52) and 1.06 (0.42-2.66). Given the pivotal effects of the Vitamin D receptor on gene transcription, it is likely that the anti-carcinogenic effects of Vitamin D that have previously been described are related to the activity and expression of the Vitamin D receptor and should be investigated further.

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