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Chem Biol Interact. 2004 Jun 30;148(1-2):49-56.

Characterization of the rates of testosterone metabolism to various products and of glutathione transferase and sulfotransferase activities in rat intestine and comparison to the corresponding hepatic and renal drug-metabolizing enzymes.

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Research DMPK and Biomarkers, AstraZeneca R&D Södertälje, S-151 85, Sweden.


Metabolism of testosterone to various products (catalyzed by several different CYP isozymes) and the activities of phenol sulfotransferase (pST) and glutathione transferase (GST) in S9 fractions prepared from the mucosa of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and upper and lower colon of male Sprague-Dawley rats were determined and compared to the corresponding hepatic and renal activities. Incubation of the S9 fraction prepared from the jejunum with testosterone and NADPH resulted in the formation of 2alpha-, 6alpha-, 6beta- and 16alpha-hydroxytestosterone and androstenedione at rates that were 1.6, 24, 1.3, 0.6 and 1.3%, respectively, of the corresponding hepatic values. The production of 2alpha-hydroxytestosterone was catalyzed only by the preparations from the duodenum and jejunum; whereas 6alpha-, 6beta- and 16alpha-hydroxytestosterone and androstenedione were produced in all regions of the intestine. In the case of the rat kidney, the rates of formation of the different testosterone metabolites were between 0.6 and 35% of the corresponding liver activity. The activity of glutathione transferase was approximately 12-26% of the corresponding hepatic activity throughout the intestine. The highest activity of phenol sulfotransferase was observed in the lower colon (almost 6% of the liver activity) and the lowest activity in the duodenum (1%). The renal activities of GST and pST were 70 and 1%, respectively, of the corresponding liver values. In summary, the metabolism of testosterone and the activities of GST and pST in rat intestine are generally low to very low in comparison to the corresponding activities in rat liver. In most cases, these activities are present throughout the entire intestine and not restricted to a particular portion(s) of this organ.

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