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Nat Immunol. 2004 Aug;5(8):800-8. Epub 2004 Jun 27.

NOD2 is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated T helper type 1 responses.

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  • 1Mucosal Immunity Section, Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 10 Room 11N238, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


The mechanism by which mutations in CARD15, which encodes nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), cause Crohn disease is poorly understood. Because signaling via mutated NOD2 proteins leads to defective activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, one proposal is that mutations cause deficient NF-kappa B-dependent T helper type 1 (T(H)1) responses and increased susceptibility to infection. However, this idea is inconsistent with the increased T(H)1 responses characteristic of Crohn disease. Here we used Card15(-/-) mice to show that intact NOD2 signaling inhibited Toll-like receptor 2-driven activation of NF-kappa B, particularly of the NF-kappa B subunit c-Rel. Moreover, NOD2 deficiency or the presence of a Crohn disease-like Card15 mutation increased Toll-like receptor 2-mediated activation of NF-kappa B-c-Rel, and T(H)1 responses were enhanced. Thus, CARD15 mutations may lead to disease by causing excessive T(H)1 responses.

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