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Behav Brain Res. 2004 Aug 12;153(1):233-9.

Inescapable shock activates serotonergic neurons in all raphe nuclei of rat.

Author information

1
Departmento de Anatomia, Instituto de Ciências Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo SP, Brazil.

Abstract

Animal studies examining the effects of stress upon brain serotonergic neurons have not presented a clearcut and consistent picture. One stressor that has been shown to exert a consistently strong effect on serotonin release and c-fos activation in the dorsal raphe nucleus of rats is a series of inescapable electrical shocks. Using immunohistochemical double labeling for c-fos activation and serotonin, we examined the effects of delivering 100 inescapable tailshocks to rats on serotonergic neuronal activation throughout the brainstem raphe system. This stimulus exerted a consistent and strong activation of the entire midline brain stem system of serotonergic neurons. The implications of these findings for animal models of human psychopathology are discussed.

PMID:
15219724
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbr.2003.12.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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