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Am J Med Genet A. 2004 Jul 30;128A(3):299-304.

Malignant degeneration of presacral teratoma in the Currarino anomaly.

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  • 1Department of Human Genetics, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas, Madrid, Spain.


The autosomal dominant Currarino anomaly (CA) comprises a presacral mass, partial sacral agenesis, and anorectal defects. Chronic constipation in childhood related to anorectal defects is the most common presenting symptom and hemisacrum the most frequent malformation. The presacral mass may be an anterior meningomyelocele, teratoma, hamartoma, dermoid cyst, neuroenteric cyst, or a combination of these. Sepsis and meningitis are frequent serious problems related to the anterior meningomyelocele, whilst malignant transformation of presacral teratoma is a rare, severe complication in CA. Here, we report on a three-generation family segregating the CA, presenting with anorectal defects, severe constipation, and sacral involvement in affected relatives. Teratoma was the most frequent component of the presacral mass. In this kindred a 22-year-old man died of a neuroendocrine tumor, probably related to malignant change in a presacral teratoma. A novel mutation in HLXB9 consisting of a 24-bp deletion and insertion of 2-bp into exon 1, was identified in all patients and in also three asymptomatic members of this family. Anterior meningomyelocele is the most frequently reported component of the presacral masses in CA; however, presacral teratomas carry an inherent risk for malignancy that must be considered in the counseling, surgical treatment options, and follow-up of CA patients.

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