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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Jul;15(7):1912-9.

Medicare patients with cardiovascular disease have a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease and a high rate of progression to end-stage renal disease.

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  • 1Georgia Medical Care Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia 30346, USA.


The risk of progression to ESRD among individuals with cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to describe the risk of ESRD among patients with cardiovascular disease. Charts were abstracted for randomly selected hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of either congestive heart failure (CHF) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The prevalence of CKD, based on the estimated modified diet in renal disease GFR of <60 ml/min per m2, was 60.4% of CHF patients and 51.7% of AMI patients. When compared with patients without CKD, the 30-d readmission rate was higher for CHF patients with CKD (odds ratio [OR], 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 2.44) and for AMI patients with CKD (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.70). CHF patients (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.30) and AMI patients (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.98 to 4.84) with CKD were more likely to die during the year after discharge from the hospital. ESRD after discharge occurred in nine of 517 patients with AMI and 24 of 640 patients with CHF. CKD increased the risk of ESRD among CHF patients (OR, 34.5; 95% CI, 4.23 to 279.43) and AMI patients (0 and 3% for those without and with CKD, respectively). At discharge, 18% of AMI patients and 21% of CHF patients with CKD were discharged with a diagnosis of renal disease. CKD is highly prevalent among patients with cardiovascular disease and is associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes, including progression to ESRD. This study suggests that opportunities may exist to improve the detection of CKD in these patients who are hospitalized with cardiovascular disease.

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