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Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;80(1):82-8.

Relation between food reinforcement and dopamine genotypes and its effect on food intake in smokers.

Author information

1
Departments of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, 14214-3000, USA. lhenet@buffalo.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Food reinforcement and dopaminergic activity may influence food consumption, but research on whether they interact has not been performed.

OBJECTIVE:

We assessed the effects of food reinforcement and the interaction of food reinforcement with the dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) genotype and the dopamine D(2) receptor (DRD(2)) genotype on energy consumption.

DESIGN:

We studied food-consumption and reinforcing-value-of-food tasks in 88 smokers of European ancestry before they enrolled in smoking-cessation treatment. In the food-consumption task, subjects tasted and consumed 8 snack foods ad libitum. The reinforcing-value-of-food task assessed how hard subjects would work for food.

RESULTS:

Significant interactions between dopamine genotypes and food reinforcement were observed. Subjects high in food reinforcement who lacked an SLC6A3*9 allele consumed significantly more calories (>150 kcal; P = 0.015) than did subjects low in food reinforcement or those high in food reinforcement who carried at least one SLC6A3*9 allele. Similarly, subjects high in food reinforcement who carried at least one DRD(2)*A1 allele consumed >130 kcal more (P = 0.021) than did subjects low in food reinforcement or those high in food reinforcement who lacked a DRD(2)*A1 allele. There was also a main effect of food reinforcement on energy intake (P = 0.005), with subjects high in food reinforcement consuming 104 kcal (or 30%) more than did subjects low in food reinforcement.

CONCLUSIONS:

Food reinforcement has a significant effect on energy intake, and the effect is moderated by the dopamine loci SLC6A3 and DRD(2).

PMID:
15213032
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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