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Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2004 Jul;5(7):1565-71.

Alleviating stuttering with pharmacological interventions.

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University of California, Department of Psychiatry, Route 88, 101 The City Drive South, Irvine Medical Centre, Orange, CA 92868, USA.


Stuttering is a speech disorder characterised by frequent prolongations, repetitions or blocks of spoken sounds and/or syllables. Stuttering is very common and is classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) as an Axis I disorder. In spite of this, stuttering treatment is sporadically addressed by a practicing physician, especially in the US. Much has recently been learned of the neurophysiological basis of this disorder, which has provided insight into novel treatment strategies, thus helping to guide the practising clinician. Stuttering is likely to be associated, at least in part, to dopamine hyperactivity in the brain. Novel dopamine antagonists such as risperidone and olanzapine, have recently been shown to improve the symptoms of stuttering providing a strong foundation for physicians to more effectively treat this disorder.

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