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Chem Res Toxicol. 2004 Jun;17(6):827-38.

Identification and characterization of novel stable deoxyguanosine and deoxyadenosine adducts of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-quinone from reactions at physiological pH.

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Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, B143-06, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA.


Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is an archetypal member of the family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is a widely distributed environmental pollutant. B[a]P is known to induce cancer in animals, and B[a]P-containing complex mixtures are human carcinogens. B[a]P exerts its genotoxic and carcinogenic effects through metabolic activation forming reactive intermediates that damage DNA. DNA adduction by B[a]P is a complex phenomenon that involves the formation of both stable and unstable (depurinating) adducts. One pathway by which B[a]P can mediate genotoxicity is through the enzymatic formation of B[a]P-7,8-quinone (BPQ) from B[a]P-7,8-diol by members of the aldo-keto-reductase (AKR) family. Once formed, BPQ can act as a reactive Michael acceptor that can alkylate cellular nucleophiles including DNA and peptides. Earlier studies have reported on the formation of stable and depurinating adducts from the reaction of BPQ with DNA and nucleosides, respectively. However, the syntheses and characterization of the stable adducts from these interactions have not been addressed. In this study, the reactivity of BPQ toward 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 2'-deoxyadenosine (dA) nucleosides under physiological pH conditions is examined. The identification and characterization of six novel BPQ-nucleoside adducts obtained from the reaction of BPQ and dG or dA in a mixture of phosphate buffer and dimethylformamide are reported. The structures of these adducts were determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy, electrospray mass spectrometry, and NMR experiments including (1)H, (13)C, two-dimensional COSY, one-dimensional NOE, ROESY, HMQC, HSQC, and HMBC. The reaction of BPQ with dG afforded four unique Michael addition products: two diastereomers of 8-N(1),9-N(2)-deoxyguanosyl-8,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenzo[a]pyren-7(8H)-one (BPQ-dG(1,2)) and two diastereomers of 10-(N(2)-deoxyguanosyl)-9,10-dihydro-9-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione (BPQ-dG(3,4)). The BPQ-dG(1,2)( )()adducts suggest a 1,6-Michael addition reaction of dG, an oxidation of the hydroquinone to the quinone, a 1,4-Michael addition of water, and an internal cyclization. The BPQ-dG(3,4)( )()adducts suggest a 1,4-Michael addition reaction of dG, an oxidation of the hydroquinone to the quinone, and a 1,6-Michael addition of water. Under similar but extended reaction conditions, the reaction of BPQ with dA produced only one diastereomeric pair of adducts identified as 8-N(6),10-N(1)-deoxyadenosyl-8,9-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenzo[a]pyren-7(8H)-one (BPQ-dA(1,2)). The BPQ-dA(1,2)( )()adducts suggest a 1,4-Michael addition reaction of dA, an oxidation of the hydroquinone to the quinone, a 1,6-Michael addition of water, and an internal cyclization. As considerable efforts have been placed in documenting the genotoxic effects of BPQ, this first report of the identification and characterization of these stable adducts of BPQ formed under physiological pH conditions is expected to contribute significantly to the area of BPQ-mediated genotoxicity and carcinogenesis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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