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Hematology. 2004 Jun;9(3):207-15.

Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor: an adjuvant for cancer vaccines.

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Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.


Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhances immune responses by inducing the proliferation, maturation, and migration of dendritic cells, and the expansion and differentiation of B and T lymphocytes. There is significant data in pre-clinical animal models demonstrating the adjuvant effects of GM-CSF in a variety of cancer vaccine approaches, including cellular vaccines, viral vaccines, peptide and protein vaccines, and DNA vaccines. GM-CSF is an attractive vaccine adjuvant because of its immune modulation effects and low toxicity profile. The results in animal models have been confirmed in pilot clinical trials and several clinical trials are currently ongoing.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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