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Peptides. 2004 Jun;25(6):991-6.

Orexin-A (Hypocretin-1) and leptin enhance LTP in the dentate gyrus of rats in vivo.

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Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, San Antonio, TX 0662-78249, USA.


Orexin-A (Hypocretin-1) has been localized in the posterior and lateral hypothalamic perifornical region. Orexin containing axon terminals have been found in hypothalamic nuclei and many other parts of the brain; for example, the hippocampus. Two types of orexin receptors have been discovered. Orexin 1 type of receptors have been described and been shown to be widely distributed in the rat brain including the hippocampus. Subsequently Orexin-A was found to impair both water maze performance and hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP). Leptin is expressed in adipose tissue and released into the blood where it affects food intake and can also produce widespread physiological changes mediated via autonomic preganglionic neurons, pituitary gland, and cerebral cortex. Immunoreactivity for leptin receptors has been found in various hypothalamic nuclei including the lateral hypothalamic area as well as the hippocampus especially in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Leptin receptor deficient rats and mice also show impaired LTP in CA1 and poor performance in the water maze. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of 0.0, 30, 60, 90, and 100 nM, orexin-A, and leptin, 0.0, 1.0, 100 nM, 1, and 10 microM, in 1.0 microl of ACSF, applied directly into the dentate gyrus, on LTP in medial perforant path dentate granule cell synapses in urethane anesthetized rats. Orexin-A specifically enhanced LTP at the 90 nM dose; and it was possible to block the enhancement by pretreating the animals with SB-334867, a specific orexin 1 receptor antagonist. Leptin enhanced normal LTP at 1.0 microM but inhibited LTP at lower and higher doses. These results and previous data indicate that the same peptide could possibly have different modulatory post synaptic effects in different hippocampal synapses dependent upon different types of post synaptic receptors.

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