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Shock. 2004 Jul;22(1):76-81.

A prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP4 agonist attenuates cardiovascular depression in endotoxin shock by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide production.

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Department of Anesthesiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.


The prostaglandin (PG) E2 receptor subtype EP4 has been found to mediate regulation of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages and neutrophils in vitro by PGE2. Yet the role of EP4 receptors in endotoxin shock in vivo and whether EP4 activation is a beneficial treatment are not clear. We tested the effect of an EP4 agonist on hemodynamic changes and production of inflammatory cytokines in a rat endotoxin-induced shock model. In rats under pentobarbital anesthesia, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected, and an EP4 agonist (ONO-AE1-329) was administered at one of three concentrations (1, 3, or 10 microg/kg bolus i.v. hourly). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was monitored throughout the experiment, and pressor responses to norepinephrine were determined 6 h after LPS injection. Serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and serum interleukin (IL)-6 were measured 1 h and 6 h after LPS injection. Venous nitrosyl hemoglobin (NO-Hb) concentration was measured by electron spin resonance. Expression of mRNAs encoding TNF-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the left ventricle and descending aorta was determined with a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. As time progressed, LPS significantly depressed MAP and decreased reactivity to norepinephrine. Infusion of higher doses of the EP4 agonist at 3 and 10 microg/kg/h attenuated LPS-induced hypotension and hyporeactivity to norepinephrine. LPS significantly increased serum concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-6, and higher doses of EP4 agonist significantly attenuated these increases. Left ventricular and aortic expression of mRNAs encoding TNF-alpha and iNOS was increased by LPS; again, EP4 agonist at higher doses attenuated the increases. LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators and cardiovascular depression were attenuated by EP4 agonist administration in an in vivo endotoxin shock model. Anti-inflammatory effects thus would be involved in protection by EP4 agonist against cardiovascular depression in endotoxin shock.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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