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Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 May;10(5):832-41.

Ring vaccination and smallpox control.

Author information

1
Department of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands. mirjam.kretzschmar@rivm.nl

Abstract

We present a stochastic model for the spread of smallpox after a small number of index cases are introduced into a susceptible population. The model describes a branching process for the spread of the infection and the effects of intervention measures. We discuss scenarios in which ring vaccination of direct contacts of infected persons is sufficient to contain an epidemic. Ring vaccination can be successful if infectious cases are rapidly diagnosed. However, because of the inherent stochastic nature of epidemic outbreaks, both the size and duration of contained outbreaks are highly variable. Intervention requirements depend on the basic reproduction number (R0), for which different estimates exist. When faced with the decision of whether to rely on ring vaccination, the public health community should be aware that an epidemic might take time to subside even for an eventually successful intervention strategy.

PMID:
15200816
PMCID:
PMC3323203
DOI:
10.3201/eid1005.030419
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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