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Ann Urol (Paris). 2004 Apr;38(2):52-66.

[Vesicovaginal fistula].

[Article in French]

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Service d'urologie, hôpital Saint-Louis, hôpital des Diaconnesses, Paris, France.


Urinary fistula to the vagina has been described since the beginning of the written record. In developed nations, these fistulas are usually unfortunate complications of gynecologic or other pelvic surgery and radiotherapy. Historically, birth trauma accounted for most vesicovaginal fistulas, and it remains the major cause of urinary fistulas in many underdeveloped nations. Once a vesicovaginal fistula is suspected, a thorough vaginal examination should be performed to identify its size and location, especially in relation to the trigone and eliminate a ureterovaginal fistula which can be associated in up to 10% of cases. Numerous methods for the treatment of vesicovaginal fistulae have been described. Abdominal, and vaginal approaches are used for the repair of vesicovaginal fistulae. The approach selected is dependent on many factors, but is probably best determined by the experience and training of the surgeon. The techniques of the vaginal approach involve tension-free closure of the fistula with or without excision of the tract, creation of an anterior vaginal wall flap and appropriate use of vascularized interposition grafts. The abdominal approach may be used to treat all types of vesicovaginal fistulae and is the preferred approach when concomittant ureteral reimplantation is required. Postoperative care is similar for both vaginal and abdominal vesicovaginal fistula repair. Adequate uninterrupted bladder drainage is the most critical aspect of postoperative management. A voiding cystourethrogram is performed at 10 postoperative days to confirm closure of the fistula.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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