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J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004 Oct;97(4):1395-400. Epub 2004 Jun 11.

Active force inhibition and stretch-induced force enhancement in frog muscle treated with BDM.

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Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr., Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4.


There is evidence that the stretch-induced residual force enhancement observed in skeletal muscles is associated with 1) cross-bridge dynamics and 2) an increase in passive force. The purpose of this study was to characterize the total and passive force enhancement and to evaluate whether these phenomena may be associated with a slow detachment of cross bridges. Single fibers from frog lumbrical muscles were placed at a length 20% longer than the plateau of the force-length relationship, and active and passive stretches (amplitudes of 5 and 10% of fiber length and at a speed of 40% fiber length/s) were performed. Experiments were conducted in Ringer solution and with the addition of 2, 5, and 10 mM of 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), a cross-bridge inhibitor. The steady-state active and passive isometric forces after stretch of an activated fiber were higher than the corresponding forces measured after isometric contractions or passive stretches. BDM decreased the absolute isometric force and increased the total force enhancement in all conditions investigated. These results suggest that total force enhancement is directly associated with cross-bridge kinetics. Addition of 2 mM BDM did not change the passive force enhancement after 5 and 10% stretches. Addition of 5 and 10 mM did not change (5% stretches) or increased (10% stretches) the passive force enhancement. Increasing stretch amplitudes and increasing concentrations of BDM caused relaxation after stretch to be slower, and because passive force enhancement is increased at the greatest stretch amplitudes and the highest BDM concentrations, it appears that passive force enhancement may be related to slow-detaching cross bridges.

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