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Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004 Jun;14(3):328-40.

Divergent and convergent signaling by the diacylglycerol second messenger pathway in mammals.

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Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Center for Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Hermann-Rein-Str. 3, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany.


Diacylglycerol is an essential second messenger in mammalian cells. The most prominent intracellular targets of diacylglycerol and the functionally analogous phorbol esters belong to the protein kinase C family, but at least five alternative types of high affinity diacylglycerol/phorbol ester receptors are known: protein kinase D, diacylglycerol kinases alpha, beta, and gamma, RasGRPs, chimaerins, and Munc13s. These function independently of protein kinase C isozymes, and form a network of signaling pathways in the diacylglycerol second messenger system that regulates processes as diverse as gene transcription, lipid signaling, cytoskeletal dynamics, intracellular membrane trafficking, or neurotransmitter release.

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