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Vaccine. 2004 Jun 23;22(19):2385-90.

Modulation of immune responses with transcutaneously deliverable adjuvants.

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UPR 9021, Immunologie et Chimie Thérapeutiques, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS, 15 rue René Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg, France.


Transcutaneous immunisation is a novel vaccination strategy based on the application of antigen together with an adjuvant onto hydrated bare skin. This simple and non-invasive immunisation procedure elicits systemic and mucosal immune responses and therefore, it provides a viable and cost-effective strategy for disease prevention. For the induction of antigen-specific immune responses the use of adjuvants is critical. They potentiate and modulate the type of immune responses by stimulating the production of cytokines that drive the differentiation of T cells towards the Th1 or Th2-phenotype. These cells mediate protection against different infectious diseases and therefore, their selective induction is important for successful vaccination. In this review we give a brief overview of transcutaneously deliverable adjuvants and we discuss how they modulate immune responses to topically applied antigens.

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