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Headache. 2004 Jun;44(6):587-95.

Evidence-based diagnosis of nontraumatic headache in the emergency department: a consensus statement on four clinical scenarios.

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Department of Neurologoical Sciences, University of Modena-Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.



To provide to emergency department (ED) physicians with guidelines for diagnosis of patients with nontraumatic headaches.


Many patients present to an ED with the chief complaint of headache. Causes of nontraumatic headache include life-threatening illnesses, and distinguishing patients with such ominous headaches from those with a primary headache disorder can be challenging for the ED physician.


We present a consensus statement aimed to be a useful tool for ED doctors in making evidence-based diagnostic decisions in the management of adult patients with nontraumatic headache.


A multidisciplinary work performed an extensive review of the medical literature and applied the information obtained to commonly encountered scenarios in the ED.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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