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J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jul 15;22(14):2927-41. Epub 2004 Jun 7.

American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations for the initial hormonal management of androgen-sensitive metastatic, recurrent, or progressive prostate cancer.

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Cancer Policy and Clinical Affairs, 1900 Duke St, Suite 200, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Clin Oncol. 2004 Nov 1;22(21):4435.



To develop a clinical practice guideline for the management of men with metastatic, recurrent, or progressive carcinoma of the prostate. The focus of this document is on the use, combinations, and timing of various forms of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for the palliation of men with androgen-sensitive disease.


An expert panel and writing committee were formed. The questions to be addressed by the guideline were determined, and a systematic review of the literature was performed, which included a search of online databases, bibliographic review, and consultation with content experts. A priori criteria were used to select studies for analysis and study authors were contacted when necessary.


There were 10 randomized controlled trials, six systematic reviews, and one Markov model available to inform the guidelines.


A full discussion between practitioner and patient should occur to determine which therapy is best for the patient. Bilateral orchiectomy or luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonists are the recommended initial treatments. Nonsteroidal antiandrogen therapy may be discussed as an alternative, but steroidal antiandrogens should not be offered as monotherapy. Patients willing to accept the increased toxicity of combined androgen blockage for a small benefit in survival should be offered nonsteroidal antiandrogen in addition to castrate therapy. Until data from studies using modern medical diagnostic/biochemical tests and standardized follow-up schedules become available, no specific recommendations can be issued regarding the question of early versus deferred ADT. A discussion about the pros and cons of early versus deferred ADT should occur.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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