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Circulation. 2004 Jun 8;109(22):2705-11.

Accumulated evidence on fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

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Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 680 North Lake Shore Drive, Suite 1102, Chicago, Ill 60611, USA.



Results from observational studies on fish consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality are inconsistent.


A meta-analysis of cohort studies was conducted to examine the association between fish intake and CHD mortality. Studies were included if they provided a relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% CI for CHD mortality in relation to fish consumption and the frequency of fish intake. A database was developed on the basis of 11 eligible studies and 13 cohorts, including 222 364 individuals with an average 11.8 years of follow-up. Pooled RR and 95% CI for CHD mortality were calculated by using both fixed-effect and random-effect models. A linear regression analysis of the log RR weighted by the inverse of variance was performed to assess the possible dose-response relation. Compared with those who never consumed fish or ate fish less than once per month, individuals with a higher intake of fish had lower CHD mortality. The pooled multivariate RRs for CHD mortality were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.01) for fish intake 1 to 3 times per month, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.96) for once per week, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.89) for 2 to 4 times per week, and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46 to 0.82) for 5 or more times per week. Each 20-g/d increase in fish intake was related to a 7% lower risk of CHD mortality (P for trend=0.03).


These results indicate that fish consumption is inversely associated with fatal CHD. Mortality from CHD may be reduced by eating fish once per week or more.

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