Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2004 Jul;13(3):657-74, ix.

Psychosexual development in genetic males assigned female: the cloacal exstrophy experience.

Author information

Departments of Urology and Psychiatry, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 920 S.L. Young Boulevard, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.


Genetic males who have cloacal exstrophy, a rare, severe pelvic field defect that leads to aphallia, traditionally have been socially, legally, and surgically sex-assigned female at birth and reared female, despite a male karyotype and a typical male prenatal hormonal milieu. Psychosexual development in such children previously has been unknown. Studies of 29 children revealed that despite the absence of the typical postnatal and pubertal androgen surges and the presence of female genitalia, all female-assigned subjects displayed a marked male-typical shift in psychosocial and psychosexual development. Nearly half of them have declared themselves male. Psychosexual development, including gender identity, in genetic and hormonal male neonates seems to be influenced heavily by prenatal androgen exposure. The clinical practice of surgical sex assignment at birth requires re-evaluation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center