Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Insect Physiol. 2004 Jun;50(6):489-96.

An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, inhibits the expression of an antibacterial peptide, cecropin, of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

Author information

1
Department of Agricultural Biology, Andong National University, Songchun-Dong 388, 760-749, South Korea.

Abstract

An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, is known to depress hemocyte nodule formation of target insects by inhibiting eicosanoid biosynthesis. This study analyzed the inhibitory effect of X. nematophila on the humoral immunity of the target insects and tested its association with the host eicosanoid pathway. Plasma collected from the fifth instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua, when they were injected with X. nematophila, did not show antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli by a growth inhibition zone assay. In comparison, heat-killed X. nematophila induced significant antibacterial activity in the plasma. The antibacterial humoral activity was further demonstrated by examining a specific potent antibacterial peptide, cecropin. Two cecropin genes ('A' and 'B') were partially cloned from the fifth instar larvae of S. exigua by conserved degenerate primers using nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). They showed high homologies with known cecropins from other lepidopteran species. Northern analysis using the cecropin probe showed that the injection of the heat-killed X. nematophila induced significant expression of a cecropin mRNA transcript (approximately 1.1 kb), but the larvae injected with the live bacteria did not show the corresponding transcript. Injection of arachidonic acid did not rescue the inhibition of X. nematophila based on either antibacterial activity or cecropin gene expression. The addition of dexamethasone, a specific phospholipase A2 inhibitor, did not inhibit antibacterial activity or cecropin gene expression when the larvae were injected with heat-killed X. nematophila. These results suggest that X. nematophila inhibits the antibacterial humoral immune reaction as well as the cellular immune reaction in S. exigua and that the inhibition of X. nematophila on the expression of the antibacterial peptide is not associated with inhibition of the eicosanoid pathway.

PMID:
15183278
DOI:
10.1016/j.jinsphys.2004.03.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center