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Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004 Jun;8(6):785-91.

The epidemiological profile of tuberculosis in southern Brazil in times of AIDS.

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School of Medicine and Master's Program in Collective Health, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas, Brazil.



Urban area in southern Brazil.


To investigate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection among new cases of tuberculosis recorded in 2000 in Porto Alegre, Brazil.


Cross-sectional population-based study.


Among 1713 new tuberculosis cases, HIV testing was not available for 29.8% and results were unknown for 1.8%. Of 1171 with known results, 47% had HIV co-infection. HIV seropositivity was 44% higher in males. The 15-59 years age group had 3.4 times more seropositive cases than the group aged >59 years. Individuals with <8 years of schooling presented 57% more co-infection. HIV positivity was twice as frequent in extra-pulmonary and combined forms of tuberculosis as in pulmonary forms. Hospitalization was 2.4 times more common in HIV-positive individuals. The overall cure rate was 69.8%, while in co-infected patients it was 43.9%. The determinants of risk of death from tuberculosis included <8 years of schooling (PR 2.2, 95%CI 1.2-3.7), HIV seropositivity (PR 8.0, 95%CI 5.0-12.9), combined pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (PR 1.7, 95%CI 1.2-2.5) and diagnosis during admission rather than in out-patient clinics (PR 5.4, 95%CI 2.9-10.1).


The co-occurrence of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS indicates a need to integrate the control programs for these two diseases. The health care system should invest in early diagnosis and adherence to treatment for both diseases.

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