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Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(15):1727-37.

Modulation of the Fcepsilon receptor I signaling by tyrosine kinase inhibitors: search for therapeutic targets of inflammatory and allergy diseases.

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Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.


Mast cells and basophils are major effector cells in the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent allergic reactions as well as in the innate immunity. They are distributed throughout the body and, upon allergen exposure, are stimulated via the high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) to release several pro-inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes, immunoregulatory cytokines and histamine. FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling is initiated by tyrosine phosphorylation of FcepsilonRI subunits by Src family kinase Lyn, which is followed by an activation of Syk/Zap family kinase Syk. The activated kinases then in turn phosphorylate and activate other enzymes [phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) isoforms, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) isoforms, protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and others], adaptors [linker for activation of T cells (LAT), Cbl, Grb2 and others] and GTP exchange factors/GTPases (Vav, Ras, Rho, and others), and subsequently induce the mobilization of stored and extracellular Ca(2+). These and other biochemical events lead within seconds and minutes to the secretory response and later to the production of chemokines. This review is focused on the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors specific for Src family kinases (PP1/PP2, SU6656 and CT5269), Syk kinase (piceatannol, ER-27319 and BAY 61-3606) and Btk (terreic acid and LFM-A13) for a modulation of FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling in mast cells. Potential use of the inhibitors in the treatment of inflammatory and allergy diseases as well as future directions in the development of highly specific tyrosine kinases inhibitors of new generations and their use in an intended modulation of mast cell signaling are discussed.

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