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Hum Mol Genet. 2004 Aug 1;13(15):1587-97. Epub 2004 Jun 2.

Variation in USF1 shows haplotype effects, gene : gene and gene : environment associations with glucose and lipid parameters in the European Atherosclerosis Research Study II.

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Division of Cardiovascular Genetics, Department of Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK.


Upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF 1), is a transcription factor controlling expression of several genes involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis and co-localizes with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and type 2 diabetes on chromosome 1q22-23. We sequenced USF1 in 24 UK FCHL probands, but found no rare or common cSNPs. Three common intronic single nucleotide ploymorphisms (SNP), 306A>G, 475C>T and 1748C>T, were identified and their association was examined with fasting and postprandial lipids and after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the European Atherosclerosis Research Study II offspring study. There were no significant differences in allelic frequencies of the SNPs between cases and controls. Individually none of the SNPs showed significant associations with any parameter. In haplotype analysis, compared with other haplotypes, 475C/1748T showed significantly higher and 475T/1748T showed lower peak glucose (P=0.004 and 0.07, respectively) during the OGTT. There was significant case-control heterogeneity in the interaction of genotype with body mass index, on fasting low density lipoprotein with 306A>G and 1748C>T, and on borderline significance with fasting glucose with 475C>T (P=0.002, 0.0007 and 0.015, respectively). Furthermore, 475C>T showed interaction with both HSL-60C>G (case-control heterogeneity P=0.0002) on AUC TG and APOC3 -482C>T on plasma apoE levels (P=0.0012). Thus, in these healthy young men, variation in USF1 was the influencing feature of both glucose and lipid homeostasis showing case-control heterogeneity.

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