Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Clin Invest. 2004 Jun;113(11):1535-49.

Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta mediates convergence of protection signaling to inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland 21224-6825, USA.

Abstract

Environmental stresses converge on the mitochondria that can trigger or inhibit cell death. Excitable, postmitotic cells, in response to sublethal noxious stress, engage mechanisms that afford protection from subsequent insults. We show that reoxygenation after prolonged hypoxia reduces the reactive oxygen species (ROS) threshold for the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in cardiomyocytes and that cell survival is steeply negatively correlated with the fraction of depolarized mitochondria. Cell protection that exhibits a memory (preconditioning) results from triggered mitochondrial swelling that causes enhanced substrate oxidation and ROS production, leading to redox activation of PKC, which inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). Alternatively, receptor tyrosine kinase or certain G protein-coupled receptor activation elicits cell protection (without mitochondrial swelling or durable memory) by inhibiting GSK-3beta, via protein kinase B/Akt and mTOR/p70(s6k) pathways, PKC pathways, or protein kinase A pathways. The convergence of these pathways via inhibition of GSK-3beta on the end effector, the permeability transition pore complex, to limit MPT induction is the general mechanism of cardiomyocyte protection.

PMID:
15173880
PMCID:
PMC419483
DOI:
10.1172/JCI19906
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for American Society for Clinical Investigation Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center