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Blood. 2004 Oct 1;104(7):2060-4. Epub 2004 Jun 1.

Pathobiology of hemophilic synovitis I: overexpression of mdm2 oncogene.

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Department of Pediatrics, Rush Children's Hospital and Rush University, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.


Hemophilia is a genetic disease caused by a deficiency of blood coagulation factor VIII or IX. Bleeding into joints is the most frequent manifestation of hemophilia. Hemarthrosis results in an inflammatory and proliferative disorder termed hemophilic synovitis (HS). In time, a debilitating, crippling arthritis, hemophilic arthropathy, develops. Although the clinical sequence of events from joint bleeding to synovitis to arthropathy is well documented, the component or components in blood and the molecular changes responsible for hemophilic synovitis are not known. Iron has long been suspected to be the culprit but direct evidence has been lacking. Previously, we showed that iron increased human synovial cell proliferation and induced c-myc expression. Here we show that bleeding into a joint in vivo and iron in vitro result in increased expression of the p53-binding protein, mdm2. Iron induced the expression of mdm2 by normal human synovial cells approximately 8-fold. In a murine model of human hemophilia A, hemarthrosis resulted in pathologic changes observed in human hemophilic synovitis and a marked increase in synovial cell proliferation. Iron, in vitro, induced the expression of mdm2. The molecular changes induced by iron in the blood may be the basis of the increase in cell proliferation and the development of hemophilic synovitis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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