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Chemosphere. 2004 Jul;56(3):275-84.

Metabolic fate of [14C]-2,4-dichlorophenol in macrophytes.

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  • 1INRA, UMR Xénobiotiques, 180 ch. de Tournefeuille, BP3, 31931 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.


The metabolic fate of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) was investigated in six macrophytes representing different life forms. Salvinia natans and Lemna minor were chosen as surface-floating plants, Glyceria maxima and Mentha aquatica as emergent species and Myriophyllum spicatum and Hippuris vulgaris as submerged aquatic plants. After uptake of a [U-phenyl-14C]-DCP solution followed by a 48 h water chase, whole plants (L. minor, S. natans) or excised shoots were harvested and aqueous extracts were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Metabolites were then isolated, submitted to enzymatic or chemical hydrolyses and characterised by electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometric analyses. Whereas DCP monoglucosides or more complex monoglucoside esters, either malonyl or acetyl, were found in most species, an unusual glucosyl-pentose conjugate was identified as the DCP major metabolite in L. minor and G. maxima. Our results showed for the first time the ability of five macrophytes to uptake and metabolise DCP and the characterisation of their metabolic pathways of DCP biotransformation.

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