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Int J Cancer. 2004 Jul 20;110(6):869-74.

Genetic evolution in colon cancer KM12 cells and metastatic derivates.

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Laboratori de Citogenètica, Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.


So far, CRC cell lines have contributed to descriptions of 2 patterns of genetic instability, affecting either microsatellite sequences or chromosome number and structure. Often, these patterns are mutually exclusive; while near-diploid karyotypes usually appear with MSI and chromosomal stability, near-triploid or tetraploid cells display a high degree of CIN and are stable at the microsatellite level. In the present study, we describe the genomic instability pattern of KM12 CRC cells. KM12C and derived cell lines with different metastatic properties were analyzed by conventional cytogenetics, CGH and M-FISH. Results were compared to 5 cell lines usually used as model of MSI and CIN. Concordance between our results and previously published SKY data are also reviewed. Interestingly, the poorly metastatic KM12C cell line displayed a near-diploid karyotype with high levels of structural chromosome instability and microsatellite instability. The highly metastatic KM12SM and KM12L4A cell lines showed polyploid karyotypes and maintained CIN and MSI. A comparison between karyotypes of poorly and highly metastatic KM12 cell lines allowed us to delineate a cytogenetic evolution pathway. Our results clearly demonstrated that endoreduplication was the origin of the polyploid dosages in the highly metastatic forms following the monosomic model postulated for CRC. Therefore, we demonstrate that KM12C cells and their metastatic derivates, KM12SM and KM12L4A, are a useful model of chromosomal evolution where MSI may coexist with CIN.

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