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Anal Chem. 2004 Jun 1;76(11):3162-70.

Integrated portable genetic analysis microsystem for pathogen/infectious disease detection.

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Chemistry Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.


An integrated portable genetic analysis microsystem including PCR amplification and capillary electrophoretic (CE) analysis coupled with a compact instrument for electrical control and laser-excited fluorescence detection has been developed. The microdevice contains microfabricated heaters, temperature sensors, and membrane valves to provide controlled sample positioning and immobilization in 200-nL PCR chambers. The instrument incorporates a solid-state laser and confocal fluorescence detection optics, electronics for sensing and powering the PCR reactor, and high-voltage power supplies for conducting CE separations. The fluorescein-labeled PCR products are amplified and electrophoretically analyzed in a gel-filled microchannel in <10 min. We demonstrate the utility of this instrument by performing pathogen detection and genotyping directly from whole Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus cells. The E. coli detection assay consists of a triplex PCR amplification targeting genes that encode 16S ribosomal RNA, the fliC flagellar antigen, and the sltI shigatoxin. Serial dilution demonstrates a limit of detection of 2-3 bacterial cells. The S. aureus assay uses a femA marker to identify cells as S. aureus and a mecA marker to probe for methicillin resistance. This integrated portable genomic analysis microsystem demonstrates the feasibility of performing rapid high-quality detection of pathogens and their antimicrobial drug resistance.

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