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J Nerv Ment Dis. 2004 Jun;192(6):405-13.

Assessing disability in older patients with schizophrenia: results from the WHODAS-II.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0603, USA.


The World Health Organization has recently published an instrument to evaluate disability, entitled the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-Second Version (WHODAS-II). We sought to evaluate its reliability and validity in older patients with schizophrenia. We studied 54 outpatients with schizophrenia and 22 normal comparison subjects. Besides WHODAS-II, we used standardized rating scales to assess positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning, everyday functioning, and quality of well-being. There was high internal consistency in WHODAS-II item scores and significant test-retest reliability. Patients reported greater disability than normal comparison subjects. Among the patients, disability scores were significantly associated with severity of depressive symptoms and quality of well-being, but not with cognitive performance and everyday functioning. The findings offer strong evidence for reliability and some evidence for validity of the WHODAS-II in older patients with schizophrenia.

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