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Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Aug;24(8):1448-53. Epub 2004 May 27.

Apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolemia related to mutations in PCSK9.

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1
INSERM U 539, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine de Nantes, France.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We have reported further heterogeneity in familial autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolemia (FH) related to mutation in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene previously named neural apoptosis regulated convertase 1 (Narc-1). Our aim was to define the metabolic bases of this new form of hypercholesterolemia.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

In vivo kinetics of apolipoprotein B100-containing lipoproteins using a 14-hour primed constant infusion of [2H3] leucine was conducted in 2 subjects carrying the mutation S127R in PCSK9, controls subjects, and FH subjects with known mutations on the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene (LDL-R). Apo B100 production, catabolism, and transfer rates were estimated from very LDL (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), and LDL tracer enrichments by compartmental analysis. PCSK9 mutation dramatically increased the production rate of apolipoprotein B100 (3-fold) compared with controls or LDL-R mutated subjects, related to direct overproduction of VLDL (3-fold), IDL (3-fold), and LDL (5-fold). The 2 subjects also showed a decrease in VLDL and IDL conversion (10% to 30% of the controls). LDL fractional catabolic rate was slightly decreased (by 30%) compared with controls but still higher than LDL-R-mutated subjects.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results showed that the effect of the S127R mutation of PCSK9 on plasma cholesterol homeostasis is mainly related to an overproduction of apolipoprotein B100.

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