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Virus Res. 2004 Jul;103(1-2):177-85.

Current status of live attenuated influenza virus vaccine in the US.

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Health Science Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Saint Louis University, 3035 Vista at Grand Blvd, St.-Louis, MO 63110, USA.


The efficacy and effectiveness of cold adapted live attenuated (CAIV-T, FluMist intranasal influenza vaccine is reviewed. CAIV-T consists of approximately 10(7) TCID50 per dose of each influenza A/H1N1, influenza A/H3N2, and influenza B vaccine strain. The exact strains are updated each year to antigenically match the antigens recommended by national health authorities for inclusion in the vaccine. In one year in which the vaccine strain did not well match the epidemic strain, the live attenuated vaccine induced a broad immune response that cross-reacted significantly with the drifted strain. The efficacy of CAIV-T in adults was demonstrated with challenge studies and the effectiveness of the vaccine for reducing febrile upper respiratory illness, days of missed work, and days of antibiotic use was demonstrated in a large field trial. In young children, protective efficacy against culture confirmed influenza was demonstrated in a field trial with overall protective efficacy of 92% during a two year study. Vaccine was also highly protective against a strain not contained in the vaccine, with 86% protective efficacy demonstrated against this significantly drifted virus. Effectiveness measures, including protection against febrile otitis media and visits to the doctor were demonstrated. Live attenuated vaccine provides a significant new tool to help prevent influenza.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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