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J Small Anim Pract. 2004 May;45(5):259-62.

Multicentric lymphoma in a dog after cyclosporine therapy.

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Small Animal Hospital, Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L7 7EX.


An 11-year-old, neutered male German shepherd dog was presented with perianal ulceration and fistulas. A clinical diagnosis of anal furunculosis was made, and the dog was treated with cyclosporine and ketoconazole. The perianal lesions resolved. However, after four weeks of therapy the dog developed multicentric lymphoma. Complete remission was achieved with combination chemotherapy (Wisconsin-Madison protocol). Cyclosporine administration is associated with an increased risk of development of lymphoma in humans and a similar increased risk might be expected in dogs. Although a causative relationship between cyclosporine administration and the development of lymphoma cannot be proven in this case, it is possible that cyclosporine therapy may have contributed to lymphomagenesis. As the use of cyclosporine in small animals is increasing, further work is required to substantiate and quantify the proposed increased risk.

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